Controlling SikuliX Scripts and their Behavior#

setShowActions(False | True) If set to True, when a script is run, SikuliX shows a visual effect (a blinking double lined red circle) on the spot where the action will take place before executing actions (e.g. click(), dragDrop(), type(), etc) for about 2 seconds in the standard (see Settings.SlowMotionDelay ). The default setting is False.

exit([value]) Stops the script gracefully at this point. The value is returned to the calling environment.

class Settings#


Settings.ActionLogs Settings.InfoLogs Settings.DebugLogs

Settings.MinSimilarity The default minimum similarity of find operations. While using a Region.find() operation, if only an image file is provided, SikuliX searches the region using a default minimum similarity of 0.7.

Settings.MoveMouseDelay Control the time taken for mouse movement to a target location by setting this value to a decimal value (default 0.5). The unit is seconds. Setting it to 0 will switch off any animation (the mouse will “jump” to the target location).

As a standard behavior the time to move the mouse pointer from the current location to the target location given by mouse actions is 0.5 seconds. During this time, the mouse pointer is moved continuously with decreasing speed to the target point. An additional benefit of this behavior is, that it gives the active application some time to react on the previous mouse action, since the e.g. click is simulated at the end of the mouse movement

mmd = Settings.MoveMouseDelay # save default/actual value
click(image1) # implicitly wait 0.5 seconds before click
Settings.MoveMouseDelay = 3
click(image2) # give app 3 seconds time before clicking again
Settings.MoveMouseDelay = mmd # reset to original value

Settings.DelayBeforeMouseDown Settings.DelayBeforeDrag Settings.DelayBeforeDrop DelayBeforeMouseDown specifies the waiting time before mouse down at the source location as a decimal value (seconds). DelayBeforeDrag specifies the waiting time after mouse down at the source location as a decimal value (seconds). DelayBeforeDrop specifies the waiting time before mouse up at the target location as a decimal value (seconds). Usage: When using Region.dragDrop(), Region.drag() and Region.dropAt() you may have situations, where the operation is not processed as expected. This may be due to the fact, that the SikuliX actions are too fast for the target application to react properly. With these settings the waiting time before and after the mouse down at the source location and before the mouse up at the target location of a dragDrop operation are controlled. The standard settings are 0.3 seconds for each value. The time that is taken, to move the mouse from source to target is controlled by Settings.MoveMouseDelay

Settings.DelayBeforeMouseDown = 0.5
Settings.DelayBeforeDrag = 0.2
Settings.DelayBeforeDrop = 0.2
Settings.MoveMouseDelay = 3
dragDrop(source_image, target_image)
# time for complete dragDrop: about 4 seconds + search times

he given values are only valid for the next following action. The inner timing will be reset to the defaults after the action’s completion.

Settings.ClickDelay Specify a delay between the mouse down and up in seconds as 0.nnn. This only applies to the next click action and is then reset to 0 again. A value > 1 is cut to 1.0 (max delay of 1 second)

Settings.TypeDelay Specify a delay between the key presses in seconds as 0.nnn. This only applies to the next type action and is then reset to 0 again. A value > 1 is cut to 1.0 (max delay of 1 second)


If the internal timing of the compound mouse functions like click() or dragDrop() is not suitable in your special situation, you might as well build your own functions using the basic mouse functions Region.mouseDown(), Region.mouseMove() and Region.mouseUp()

Settings.SlowMotionDelay Control the duration of the visual effect (seconds).

Settings.WaitScanRate Settings.ObserveScanRate Specify the number of times actual search operations are performed per second while waiting for a pattern to appear or vanish.

As a standard behavior SikuliX internally processes about 3 search operations per second, when processing a Region.wait(), Region.exists(), Region.waitVanish(), Region.observe()). In cases where this leads to an excessive usage of system resources or if you intentionally want to look for the visual object not so often, you may set the respective values to what you need. Since the value is used as a rate per second, specifying values between 1 and near zero, leads to scans every x seconds (e.g. specifying 0.5 will lead to scans every 2 seconds):

def myHandler(e):
print "it happened"
# you may wish to save the actual settings before
Settings.ObserveScanRate = 0.2
onAppear(some_image, myHandler)
observe(FOREVER, background = True)
# the observer will look every 5 seconds ;-)

Settings.ObserveMinChangedPixels The minimum area size in pixels that changes it’s content to trigger a change event when using Region.onChange() when no value is specified. The default value is 50 (a rectangle of about 7x7 Pixels).

Settings.AlwaysResize A decimal value greater 0 and not equal to 1 to switch the feature on.

With this setting you can tell SikuliX to generally resize all given images before a search operation using the given factor, which is applied to both width and height. The implementation internally uses the standard behavior of resizing a Java-AWT-BufferedImage.

To switch the feature off again, just assign 0 or 1.

Usage This might be helpful in cases, where you want to use a set of images in a different environment, where the rendering process shows everything in a different resolution. This option can only be used, if the behavior of the rendering is compatible to the above mentioned resize implementation.

Example A working example situation is the scenario on a Mac with a Retina device, when you decide to capture your images with the standard Mac tools. In this case width and height of the captures will be doubled against a normal display (4 pixels for 1 pixel). Now you can say Settings.AlwaysResize = 0.5 and every image will be downsized to the correct pixel width and height as needed by the internal search operation. Be aware Using the SikuliX capture features will automatically adjust the images in the Retina situation already at the Java level. No need for extra work.

  • Alternative 1 If you do not need this for all, but only for some images, then the class Pattern has a feature, to only scale the given image at time of search: Pattern.resize().

  • Alternative 2 If you have the need for even more specific filtering and/or additional modifications of an image, you can use a global callback feature, that, if set, will allow you to return a modified version of the given image for the search: Settings.ImageCallback.

Settings.ImageCallback A callback function, that is visited before a search of an image. The callback itself is implemented at the Java level and hence can only use the SikuliX Java API and standard Java features.


Settings.AlwaysResize must be switched off and Pattern.resize() must not be used for the image in parallel.


* Java example
// define and activate the callback
Settings.ImageCallback = new ImageCallback() {
public BufferedImage callback(Image img) {
BufferedImage bufferedImage = img.get();
// add code, to modify the buffered image
// and return the modified or original (=noop) BufferedImage
return bufferedImage;
// deactivate the callback
Settings.ImageCallback = null;
* Jython example
# define the callback
import org.sikuli.script.ImageCallback as ImageCallback
class MyCallback(ImageCallback):
def callback(self, img):
bufferedImage = img.get()
# add Jython-Java code, to modify the buffered image
# and return the modified or original (=noop) BufferedImage
return bufferedImage
# activate the callback
Settings.ImageCallback = MyCallback()
# deactivate the callback
Settings.ImageCallback = None

Writing and redirecting log and debug messages#

these are the relevant Settings for user logging showing defaults: (False = switched off, True = switched on)

  • Settings.UserLogs = True (False: user log calls are ignored)
  • Settings.UserLogPrefix = "user" (message prefix)
  • Settings.UserLogTime = True
  • Debug.setUserLogFile("absolute-path-to-file") (no default)

to write a user log message: Debug.user("text with %placeholders", args …) where text is a string according to the rules of Java String.format().

The messages looks like so: [prefix optional-timestamp] message-text with filled in arg values

Being in Jython scripting one might as well use this: Debug.user("some text with %placeholders" % (list-of-args …))

the settings for Sikuli’s logging with the defaults: (False = switched off (message type not created), True = switched on)

  • Settings.ActionLogs = True (message prefix: [log])
  • Settings.InfoLogs = True (message prefix: [info])
  • Settings.DebugLogs = False (message prefix: [debug])
  • Settings.LogTime = False
  • Debug.setLogFile("absolute-path-to-file") to redirect the SikuliX messages to a file, no default

Debug messages SikuliX internally issues debug messages all over the place, to show, what it is doing. Creating debug messages is dependant on the current DEBUG_LEVEL value:

  • if 0, no debug messages are shown
  • if >0, debug messages having a level <= DEBUG_LEVEL are created

The initial DEBUG_LEVEL is 0 and can be set with

  • the Java command line parameter -Dsikuli.Debug=n or
  • the command line parameter -d n when using SikuliX jars or command scripts.

Currently a suitable DEBUG_LEVEL is 3, that shows enough valuable information about what is going on internally.

If you ever encounter problems, that might have to do with SikuliX’s internal processing, switch on debug messaging with level 3.

To avoid tons of not needed messages, you might switch debugging on and off on the fly for only critical sections in your workflow:

  • switch on: Debug.on(n) setting the DEBUG_LEVEL=n (recommended: 3)
  • switch off:

Debug messages look so: [DEBUG optional-timestamp] message-text with filled in arg values

and can be produced with Debug.log(level, "text with %placeholders", args …)

Recommendation: use 1 as level, since this is not used internally by SikuliX and allows you to switch your private debug messaging on Debug.on(1) and off.

Logging Callback Currently only for Jython scripting, there is a logging callback feature, that redirects the log messages to a given function in your script, where you can finally process the message for example with your own looging concept.

This is a basic usage example, where the callback function gets all messages:

# a wrapper class is needed for the callback function (name it as you want)
class myLogger():
# a callback function (name it as you want)
# you might have more than one for specific handling of message groups
def callback(self, message):
print message
# prepare log redirect
Debug.setLogger(myLogger()) # sets the object containing the callback functions
# redirect all logging messages
Debug.setLoggerAll("callback") # the name of the callback function as string
# from now on myLogger.callback will receive the messages

Selective log message processing (callback is the name of your specific callback function):

  • Debug.setLoggerUser("callback") # redirect messages [user]
  • Debug.setLoggerInfo("callback") # redirect messages [info]
  • Debug.setLoggerAction("callback") # redirect messages [log]
  • Debug.setLoggerError("callback") # redirect messages [error]
  • Debug.setLoggerDebug("callback") # redirect messages [debug]

You might suppress the creation of the message header for all messages, so you only get the message body: use Debug.setLoggerNoPrefix(myLogger()) instead of the initial Debug.setLogger(myLogger())

File and Path handling#

available for Jython scripting only in the moment

In more complex scripting situations it is often necessary to deal with paths to files and folders. To make this a bit more convenient, the following functions are available

getBundlePath() returns the path to the current .sikulix folder without trailing separator. (you can also use SIKULI_IMAGE_PATH)

getBundleFolder() same as getBundlePath() but with trailing separator to make it suitable for string concatenation.

getParentPath() returns the path to the parent folder of the current .sikulix folder without trailing separator.

getParentFolder() same as getParentPath() but with trailing separator to make it suitable for string concatenation.

makePath(path1, path2, path3, ...) returns a path with the correct path seperators for the system running on by concatenating the given path elements from left to right (given as strings). There is no trailing path seperator.

makeFolder(path1, path2, path3, ...) same as makePath() but trailing path seperator to make it suitable for string concatenation.


makePath and makeFolder on Windows the first path element can be specified as a drive letter “X:”

unzip(fromFile, toFolder) A convenience function to unzip a zipped container to a folder (implemented using the Java builtin support for zip files). The ending of the file does not matter, the content of the file is examined to find out, whether it is a valid zip container. A zipped folder structure is preserved in the target folder. Relative paths would be resolved against the current working folder. This can for example be used, to unpack jar files.


  • fromFile – a file with a zipped content given as path string
  • toFolder – the folder where to place the unzipped content given as path string

Returns: True if it worked, False otherwise

on java!
import org.sikuli.basics.FileManager;
FileManager.unzip(fromFile, toFolder);

Image Search Path - where SikuliX looks for image files#

SikuliX maintains a list of locations to search for images when they are not found in the current script folder (a.k.a. BundlePath). This list named ImagePath is maintained internally, but can be inspected and/or modified using the following functions.


  • as long as an image file has the ending .png, this might be omitted. you might use subfolders as well, to form a relative path to an image file
  • an image path might point to a location inside a jar file (add jar)
  • an image path might point to a location on the Java classpath (add class folder)
  • an image path might point to a folder in the net, that is accessible via HTTP (add net folder)
  • SikuliX internally manages a cache for the imagefile content (standard 64 MB), where images are held in memory, thus avoiding a reload on subsequent references to the same image file.

The bundle path can only be on the (local) file system, not in a jar, nor in the net (access via HTTP). If you need places in a jar or in the HTTP net, use the ImagePath features.

The bundle path can be accessed and modified like so:

setBundlePath(path-to-a-folder) Set the base path for searching images. SikuliX sets this automatically to the path of the folder where the running script file (.py/.rb) is stored. Therefore, you should use this function only if you really know what you are doing. Additionally images are searched for in the image path, that is a global list of other places to look for images and the bundle path being the first entry. It is implicitly extended by script folders, that are imported (Check out: Reuse of Code and Images).

getBundlePath() Get a string containing the absolute path to a folder containing your images used for finding images and which is set by SikuliX IDE automatically to the script folder (.sikuli). You may use this function for example, to package your private files together with the script or to access the image files in the bundle for other purposes. Be aware of the convenience functions to manipulate paths.


Java usage: Since there is no default BundlePath, when not running a script, like in the situation, when using the Java API in Java program or other situations with the direct use of Java aware scripting languages, you can use this feature to provide places, where you have stored your images.


import org.sikuli.script.ImagePath;
ImagePath.setBundlePath("path to your image folder");
//first find omits .png, second find uses a relative path with a subfolder

Other places, where SikuliX should look for images, can be added to the ImagePath. When searching images, the ImagePath list is scanned in the order of the list. The first image file with a matching image file name is used.

Use the following functions to work with this list.

getImagePath() Get a list of paths where SikuliX will search for images.

imgPath = getImagePath() # get the list
# to loop through
for p in imgPath:
print p

addImagePath(a-new-path) Add a new folder path to the end of the current list (avoids double entries) As a convenience you might use this function also to add a path to a HTTP net folder like so or (read about addHTTPImagePath)

addHTTPImagePath(a-new-path) Add a new folder path to the end of the current list (avoids double entries) a-new-path is a net url like optionally with a folder structure attached like so: (a leading http:// or https:// is optional, if omitted http:// is assumed) The folder must be accessible via HTTP/HTTPS and must allow HTTP-HEAD requests on the contained image files (this is checked at the time when trying to add the path entry).

removeImagePath(a-path-already-in-the-list) Remove the given path from the current list. Cached images loaded from that path are removed from the cache.

resetImagePath(a-path) Clears the current list and sets the first entry to the given path (hence gets the BundlePath). The image cache is cleared completely.

Java usage: images in a jar#

It is possible to access images, that are stored inside of jar files. So you might develop a Java app, that comes bundled with the needed images in one jar file.

To support the development cycle in IDE’s, you might specify an alternate path, where the images can be found, when running inside the IDE.

Usage in Maven Projects:

  • Following the conventions of Maven projects you should store your images in a subfolder at src/main/resources for example src/main/resources/images, which then at jar production will be copied to the root level of the jar. Not following this suggestion you have to work according to the case other projects.
  • ImagePath.add("someClass/images")
  • where someClass is the name of a class contained in a jar or folder on the class path containing the images folder.

Usage in other Projects:

  • ImagePath.add("someClass/images", alternatePath)
  • where someClass is the name of a class contained in a jar on the class path containing the given images folder at the root level of the jar.
  • where alternatePath is a valid path specification, where the images are located, when running from inside an IDE.

Importing other SikuliX Scripts#

This is possible with SikuliX:#

  • import other .sikuli in a way that is compatible with Python module import (no module structures)
  • import a python module structure including underlying Java classes from a jar-file, that is dynamically loaded using the function load(jar-file)
  • automatically access images contained in the imported .sikulix (no need to use setBundlePath())

Note: .skl cannot be imported. But you might unzip the .skl to a .sikulix, which then can be imported.

The prerequisites:#
  • The folders containing your .sikuli’s you want to import have to be in sys.path (see below: Usage)

  • SikuliX automatically finds other SikuliX scripts in the same directory, when they are imported

  • Imported script MUST contain (recommendation: as first line) the following statement:

    from sikuli import * This is necessary for the Python environment to know the Sikuli classes, methods, functions and global names


  • Add the path to the SikuliX module into sys.path not needed for modules being in the same directory as the main script Convenience function to add a path to sys.path:


  • Import your .sikulix using just its name. For example, to import myModule.sikulix, just write import myModule.


# the path containing your stuff - choose your own naming
# on Windows
myScriptPath = "c:\\someDirectory\\myLibrary"
# on Mac/Linux
myScriptPath = "/someDirectory/myLibrary"
# all systems (avoids double entries in sys.path)
# supposing there is a myLib.sikuli
import myLib
# supposing myLib.sikuli contains a function "def myFunction():"
myLib.myFunction() # makes the call

Note on contained images: Together with the import, SikuliX internally uses the feature SIKULI_IMAGE_PATH to make sure that images contained in imported .sikuli’s are found automatically.

Some comments on general rules for Python import

An import is only processed once (the first time it is found in the program flow). So be aware:

  • If your imported script contains code outside of any function definitions ( def() ), this code is only processed once at the first time, when the import is evaluated

  • Since the IDE does not reload the modules when running a script the next time, you have to use the Jython’s reload() function, if you are changing imported scripts while they are in use:

    # instead of: import module
    import module
    # instead of: from module import *
    import module
    from module import *

    Python has a so called namespace concept: names (variables, functions, classes) are only known in it’s namespace:

  • Main script has it’s own namespace

  • Each imported script has its own namespace. So names contained in an imported script have to be qualified with the module name (e.g. myLib.myFunction() )

  • You may use from myLib import *, which adds all names from myLib into your current namespace. So you can use myFunction() directly. When you decide to use this version, be sure you have a naming convention that prevents naming conflicts.

The imports for other .sikulix scripts are now tracked during one IDE session. On rerun of a main script, the respective imports are automatically reloaded, so an extra reload() in these cases is no longer needed.

Loading a jar-file containing Java/Python modules and additional resources as needed

load(jar-file) Loads a jar-file and puts the absolute path to it into sys.path, so the Java or Python code in that jar-file can be imported afterwards.

  • Parameters:
    • jar-file – either a relative or absolute path to filename.jar
    • image-folder – a relative path (always use / as path separator, no leading /)
  • Returns: True if the file was found, otherwise False

Search startegy The given jar is searched as following (first match wins):

  • if given as absolute path it is checked for existence and processed (if not exists: no further action)
  • if given as relative path:
    • Current path (Jython: sys.path, Java: classpath)
    • Current folder (Jython only: bundle path)
    • SikuliX Extensions folder
    • SikuliX Lib folder

Java usage at the Java level, this feature is available as Sikulix.load(jar [, folder]) and adds the given jar to the end of the classpath on the fly. A given folder is added to the image path as mentioned above.

Python usage more details and usage cases are discussed in Using Python. After a successful load(), you might use the standard import something, to make the module something available in your scripting context.

Run scripts/snippets from other scripts and run scripts consecutively#

What is meant by script and snippet?#

  • Script means that some code is stored somewhere in a file accessible in this context by giving it’s relative or absolute filename or URL.
  • Snippet means some text stored in a string variable, that represents one or more lines of code in a denoted scripting language, for which an interpreter is available on the running system.

You may call/run scripts from a script that is currently running, which saves the startup time for the called script and keeps available the original parameters given and the current image path.

runScript(script_path, parameter)* Runs the script found at the given script-path handing over the given parameters in sys.argv[1+]. The called script has it’s own bundle path, but the current image path. On exit the bundle path of the calling script is restored.

  • Param: script_path: a path to a script folder (rules are explained below)
  • Param: parameter: one or more parameters seperated by comma
  • Returns: the return code that the called script has given with exit(n) (exception: n = 1 - see note)

The returned value If the called script runs into an exception (e.g. FindFailed), that is not catched internally, the exception info is logged as [error] messages and the returned value is set to 1. So to sort things out correctly, the called script should use exit(0) (which is the default if omitted) on success and use exit(n) with n > 1, to signal other cases to the calling script. Do not use values < 0.

An example:

exitValue = runScript(whatever)
if exitValue > 1:
print "there was a special case"
elif exitValue == 1:
print "there was an exception"
print "ran with success"

Each parameter MUST be a simple string.

Rules for the given script_path#
  • absolute path to a folder in the file system
  • relative path to a folder taken as relative to the working folder
  • the path spec can contain leading or intermediate ../
  • a path preceded by ./ means the same folder, that the calling script is located
  • a pointer to a folder in the HTTP net
  • in any case .sikuli can be omitted
  • if it is a .skl, then it must be noted as script.skl

Special usage notes for scripts located online

  • must be accessible via HTTP
  • the location specifier can be one of these:
    • base-url:folder/script
    • http://base-url:folder/script
    • http://base-url/folder/script
    • where folder is optional and might have more than one level with / as separator
    • where script is the folder containing the script file (Python, Ruby or JavaScript) and the images (no .sikuli appended!)
  • The contained script file must have the same name as the script folder and a suffix:
    • for JavaScript .js
    • for Python .py.txt
    • for Ruby .rb.txt
    • the additional suffixes .txt are currently necessary, to avoid download problems

This feature allows to create a main script, that contains a row of runScript() commands, thus running these scripts one after the other in the same context (no startup delay). Using the return codes and the parameters allows to create medium complex workflows based on smaller reuseable entities.

Another option to run a series of scripts without the startup delay for the second script and following is to run from commandline using option -r (read about Running from command line)

Run snippets by issuing#

runScript(snippet) currently available:

  • AppleScript on Mac (script type word: applescript)

  • PowerShell on Windows (script type word: powershell)

  • Param: snippet: a string containing the scripting statements after the word identifying the script type

  • Returns: the return code that was returned by the interpreter running this snippet

Example for Applescript: returnCode = runScript('applescript tell application "Mail" to activate')

or like this for a multiline snippet:

cmd = """
tell application "Mail" to activate
display alert "Mail should be visible now"
returnCode = runScript(cmd)

Example for PowerShell: returnCode = runScript('powershell get-process')

or like this for a multiline snippet:

cmd = """
returnCode = runScript(cmd)

If the snippet produces some output on stdout and/or stderror, this is accessible after return using:

commandOutput = RunTime.get().getLastCommandResult()

where the error output comes after a line containing ***** error *****